Regarding municipal elections and municipal democracy in general, there are three primary research centres:


  1. The Canadian Municipal Barometer
  2. The Canadian Municipal Election Study
  3. LABEL – Laboratory on Local Elections


Other projects:


Active researchers:

The Canadian Municipal Barometer

An annual survey of elected officials in municipalities of 9,000 residents or more.

Survey themes: state of democracy, fiscal health, economy, intergovernmental relations, issues, hours devoted to tasks of elected office, salary comparison, position before assuming office, opinion of the office, and ideological questions.

The Barometer is directed by Jack Lucas and has representatives in each province. Select works produced by Jack Lucas:


The Canadian Municipal Election Study

The study, directed by Mike McGregor (, looks at eight large cities in Canada (including Montreal and Quebec City). Mike also does a great deal of work about Toronto.

Two books are available with a third in preparation:

  • Lucas, J., & McGregor, R. M. (Eds.). (2021). Big city elections in Canada. University of Toronto Press.
  • Bélanger, É., Anderson, C., & McGregor, R. M. (Eds.). (2022). Voting in Quebec municipal elections: A tale of two cities. University of Toronto Press.

A wide variety of articles related to municipal elections are available at


LABEL – Laboratory on Local Elections

LABEL is directed by Sandra Breux. Unlike the previous two research centres, LABEL also conducts qualitative studies.

Themes explored include accountability/Responsiveness, information, election by acclamation, incumbent candidates, a survey of 4,000 Quebec electors regarding municipal elections, elected officials in small municipalities, profile of Projet Montréal candidates, young people and municipal elections, electors' stress and health self-assessment and their electoral participation, gender and professionalization of elected officials and election campaigns.


Internet Voting Project at the Centre for E-Democracy

The Internet Voting Project is led by Nicole J. Goodman. Some of Goodman's writings are the following:


(Compiled with the assistance of Sandra Breux)